After forty-three months of forbearance, the pause on federal pupil mortgage funds has ended. Initially enacted on the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, the executive forbearance and curiosity waiver lasted till September 1, 2023, and debtors’ month-to-month funds resumed this month. As mentioned in an accompanying submit, the pause on pupil mortgage funds afforded debtors over $260 billion in waived funds all through the pandemic, supporting debtors’ consumption and financial savings over the past three years. On this submit, we analyze responses of pupil mortgage debtors to particular questions within the August 2023 SCE Family Spending Survey designed to gauge the anticipated impression of the cost resumption on future spending development, the chance of credit score delinquency for debtors, and the financial system at giant. The findings counsel that the cost resumption could have a comparatively small total impact on consumption, on the order of a 0.1 proportion level discount in combination spending from August ranges, and a (delayed) return of pupil mortgage delinquency charges again to pre-pandemic ranges. Throughout teams, we see little variation in spending responses however discover that low-income debtors, feminine debtors, these with lower than a bachelor’s diploma, and those that weren’t in reimbursement earlier than the pandemic count on the best probability of missed pupil mortgage funds.

The SCE Family Spending Survey is fielded each 4 months as a rotating module of the Survey of Client Expectations (SCE), which itself is a month-to-month, nationally consultant internet-based survey of a rotating panel of family heads carried out by the Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York since June 2013. Right here, we concentrate on responses by about 1,000 respondents to a particular set of questions added to the August 2023 survey. Of those respondents, 225 reported having excellent pupil loans, of which a subset of 151 respondents indicated that their federal pupil loans have been beforehand “paused” however shall be coming into reimbursement in October. The remaining group consists of these whose funds have been by no means paused or those that are enrolled in class full-time and never resuming reimbursement. We requested these debtors coming into reimbursement how they plan to afford their looming month-to-month pupil mortgage funds and the way their likelihood of lacking pupil and non-student-loan funds will change as a result of cost resumption.

We start by briefly discussing our pattern. An amazing majority of our pattern of pupil mortgage debtors held federal loans (with 74 p.c reporting they maintain federal loans solely and 20 p.c reporting they maintain each federal and personal loans). Of the 151 respondents who shall be coming into reimbursement, 71 p.c have been making month-to-month funds previous to the cost pause; roughly half of the debtors in reimbursement have been in a normal (ten-year) reimbursement plan (36 p.c) and half have been in an income-driven reimbursement (IDR) plan (35 p.c). About 23 p.c of our pattern coming into reimbursement have been in deferment or forbearance previous to the pandemic, most below in-school deferment. Round 6 p.c of ­debtors weren’t actively making funds regardless of funds being required.

Expectations for Revenue-Pushed Reimbursement Enrollment

We started by asking debtors if they’d enter the usual ten-year reimbursement plan (the default choice) or enroll in an IDR plan. The Biden Administration lately debuted a brand new IDR plan, the Saving on a Helpful Training (SAVE) plan, that lowered funds for low-income debtors and has already enrolled over 4 million debtors (as of September 5). Our survey outcomes counsel that the interesting phrases of the SAVE plan for low-income debtors will seemingly enhance enrollment in IDR plans. Of these debtors who have been beforehand in a normal reimbursement plan, 20 p.c count on to enroll in an IDR plan, and 84 p.c of those that have been beforehand in an IDR plan count on to stay enrolled in IDR—outcomes that taken collectively would signify a modest uptick in IDR enrollment among the many extra seasoned debtors. In the meantime, debtors who weren’t in reimbursement previous to the pandemic overwhelmingly favor IDR over the usual cost, with 78 p.c of first-time repayers stating an intent to enroll in IDR. As proven by the flows within the chart under, we estimate the IDR enrollment amongst these in reimbursement would enhance from 50 p.c pre-pandemic to 58 p.c after funds resume.

The SAVE Plan Will Doubtless Drive New Curiosity in Revenue-Pushed Reimbursement (IDR) for Pupil Mortgage Debtors

Chart showing projected flows into standard repayment plans (to 42.1% of repayers) and income-driven repayment plans (to 57.9% of repayers) after the payment pause lifts.
Supply: New York Fed SCE Family Spending Survey, August 2023.
Notes: To categorise debtors into pre-pandemic teams, we requested respondents “Previous to March 2020, have been you making many of the funds on these loans?,” with the next choices: (a) Sure, I used to be in a normal reimbursement plan; (b) Sure, I used to be in an income-driven reimbursement plan; (c) No, my funds have been deferred (i.e., in-school deferment, navy deferment, and so on.); or (d) No, funds have been required however I used to be not making most funds. To categorise debtors into post-pause teams, we framed our query on this means: “The automated forbearance and curiosity waiver for federal pupil loans will finish after August 2023. In September, curiosity will start to accrue, and funds shall be due beginning in October. What are you planning on doing after pupil mortgage cost resumes? (choose all that apply),” with the next choices: (a) Make the usual month-to-month funds; (b) Enroll in an income-driven reimbursement plan; (c) Skip some funds; (d) Different (please specify); and (e) Not relevant (I’m in class, and funds is not going to be required). Respondents deciding on (e) have been excluded from the pattern. Debtors have been sorted into “normal reimbursement plan” or IDR utilizing responses to (a) or (b) and open-ended responses from (d).

Expectations for Adjustments to Month-to-month Spending

Subsequent, we flip to borrower’s expectations for modifications in month-to-month spending (separate from pupil mortgage funds) as a result of resumption of funds. Extra particularly, we ask debtors, “When pupil mortgage funds resume from October, how do you count on that the cost resumption will have an effect on your common month-to-month spending within the three months beginning with October 2023?” On common, debtors count on to scale back consumption by round $56 per month from their common month-to-month spending reported in August. If we scale this month-to-month decline as much as the 28 million debtors with federally-managed loans presently in forbearance, this might counsel almost a $1.6 billion decline in month-to-month spending, or 0.1 proportion level of August 2023 private consumption expenditures (PCE). For context, common month-to-month pupil mortgage funds for federally-managed loans was round $6 billion previous to the pandemic.

Within the chart under, we plot the typical reported change in anticipated October spending for paused debtors as a share of their August reported common month-to-month spending. Most teams report comparatively small anticipated reductions in spending whereas some teams report greater anticipated future spending regardless of the resumption of funds (survey panelists with out pupil loans additionally report greater future spending). These comparatively modest consumption declines, though not statistically completely different from zero, may very well be as a result of debtors already started adjusting consumption previous to August or as a result of debtors plan to scale back and/or deplete financial savings to make funds. They’re additionally prone to mirror the massive share anticipating to enroll within the extra beneficiant IDR program. Resulting from our comparatively small pattern measurement, 95 p.c confidence bands are extensive throughout teams; nonetheless, the purpose estimates with the biggest variations are between these with at the least a bachelor’s diploma (who count on bigger spending reductions) and people with lower than a bachelor’s diploma, probably reflecting variations in common excellent pupil mortgage balances and cost sizes.

Paused Pupil Mortgage Debtors Solely Anticipate Modest Consumption Declines from August Spending when Funds Resume

Supply: New York Fed SCE Family Spending Survey, August 2023.
Notes: The chart stories level estimates and 95 p.c confidence intervals for the anticipated change in spending as a share of common month-to-month spending, break up by numerous teams. To calculate this share, we requested debtors, “When pupil mortgage funds resume from October, how do you count on that the cost resumption will have an effect on your common month-to-month spending within the three months beginning with October 2023? Please exclude mortgage funds out of your estimation of spending. Beginning October 2023, I count on my common month-to-month spending to (enhance/lower) by [ ].” We then requested debtors for his or her common month-to-month spending on the time of survey: “Roughly, what do you suppose was your common month-to-month family spending in the course of the previous three months? I estimate that my common month-to-month family spending was [ ].” We compute the p.c change in spending for every respondent utilizing a ratio of those two solutions.

Expectations for Lacking Pupil Mortgage Funds

We additionally requested paused pupil mortgage debtors in regards to the anticipated likelihood (“p.c likelihood”) they’d miss a pupil mortgage cost or a non-student-debt cost within the three months following the cost resumption. Total, paused debtors reported a median likelihood of lacking a pupil mortgage debt cost of twenty-two.6 p.c. Notice that this statistic might overstate anticipated hardship and cost issue. Latest steering from the U.S. Division of Training informs pupil mortgage servicers to not report missed funds to credit score bureaus. As such, debtors could also be extra prone to voluntarily miss funds whereas penalties are much less extreme.

Within the chart under, we examine the self-reported likelihood of lacking a pupil mortgage cost throughout a number of teams, discovering stark and statistically vital variations throughout gender and earnings. Feminine respondents reported greater than twice the likelihood of lacking a pupil mortgage cost at 28.9 p.c in comparison with 12.5 p.c for males. Moreover, debtors with family earnings decrease than $60,000 reported a median likelihood of lacking a cost of almost 39 p.c, in comparison with 14.3 p.c for these with family earnings above $60,000. Though the estimates aren’t statistically completely different, non-white debtors reported a better common probability of lacking a cost than white non-Hispanic debtors and people with no school diploma reported a better probability than these with a level. Lastly, we see a big distinction in expectations for missed funds between debtors who have been in reimbursement previous to the pause and those that are coming into reimbursement for the primary time, with first-time repayers anticipating greater than twice the probability of missed pupil mortgage funds.

Expectations for Missed Pupil Mortgage Funds Are Excessive, however Just like Pre-Pandemic Ranges

This chart compares the self-reported probability of missing a student loan payment across gender, age, education, household income, race and pre-pandemic repayment status, finding stark and statistically significant differences across gender and income.
Supply: New York Fed SCE Family Spending Survey, August 2023.
Notes: The chart stories level estimates and 95 p.c confidence intervals for the anticipated probability a respondent will miss pupil mortgage funds as soon as funds resume, break up by numerous teams. Extra particularly, we ask, “When pupil mortgage funds resume from October, what’s the p.c likelihood that you’ll miss a minimal cost on any of your pupil mortgage debt, federal and/or non-public, within the three months beginning with October 2023?”

However how do expectations for missed funds examine to cost delinquency earlier than the cost pause? Whereas we would not have an apples-to-apples, pre-pandemic comparability for expectations of pupil mortgage missed funds, we are able to examine this likelihood with the borrower delinquency fee from our 2022 Pupil Mortgage Replace, primarily based on credit score report knowledge. As proven within the replace, within the fourth quarter of 2019, roughly 15 p.c of all pupil mortgage debtors have been both ninety or extra days delinquent or in default. Nevertheless, the denominator on this delinquency fee consists of debtors not in reimbursement, a class of debtors we exclude from this SCE survey pattern. Eradicating the 15.4 million debtors reported by the Division of Training as not in reimbursement (that’s, in class, grace, deferment, or forbearance) suggests a pre-pandemic delinquency fee of 23 p.c (for these in reimbursement)—a fee fairly just like the self-reported common likelihood of lacking a pupil mortgage cost within the SCE survey of twenty-two.6 p.c.

Expectations for Lacking Non-Pupil-Mortgage Funds

Lastly, we requested pupil mortgage debtors to report the anticipated enhance within the probability of lacking a non-student-debt month-to-month obligation (similar to a mortgage, bank card, or auto mortgage cost) on account of pupil mortgage funds restarting. On common, debtors reported a 11.8 p.c enhance within the probability of lacking a non-student debt cost owing to the scholar debt cost resumption. Debtors throughout teams have been additionally far more comparable of their expectations of lacking funds for different obligations than for pupil loans, with no proof of statistical distinction between teams. Curiously, feminine respondents reported a decrease likelihood of lacking a non-student-loan cost than male respondents (though not statistically completely different). That feminine respondents report a far greater probability of lacking pupil mortgage funds than males suggests feminine debtors could also be extra seemingly than male debtors to prioritize their non-student-loan obligations forward of pupil debt in the event that they face difficulties fulfilling all debt obligations.


Client spending has been surprisingly sturdy thus far in 2023. Nevertheless, there may be appreciable concern in regards to the energy of headwinds stemming from the resumption of pupil mortgage funds, with some financial forecasters predicting it may decrease consumption development by as a lot as 0.8 proportion level. There are additionally issues about rising delinquencies as funds resume, maybe to ranges greater than earlier than the pandemic. Our findings right here primarily based on expectations survey responses counsel solely modest reductions in spending for debtors coming into reimbursement (of roughly 0.1 proportion level of August PCE) and probability of missed pupil mortgage funds roughly according to pre-pandemic ranges. One motive for these comparatively small results is that probably many debtors already made modifications to their financial savings and consumption selections after studying that funds will surely resume in October. The chart under exhibits some proof for this speculation. Right here, we plot the each day deposits on the U.S. Treasury by the Division of Training, of which the overwhelming majority are federal pupil mortgage funds. We see that deposits elevated after the U.S. Supreme Court docket resolution reversing the broad pupil mortgage forgiveness program and continued to stand up till the tip of the zero p.c curiosity waiver. This sample appears per some debtors electing to make bulk funds towards their loans after studying that their loans wouldn’t be forgiven and earlier than curiosity resumed.

Complete Every day Training Division Deposits at U.S. Treasury

This chart plots the daily deposits at the U.S. Treasury by the Department of Education from April-October 2023.
Supply: U.S. Division of Treasury.

One other seemingly motive behind the less-than-dire forecast because the cost pause ends is the energy nonetheless obvious within the well being of the U.S. shopper. A number of coverage modifications by the White Home and Division of Training bode effectively, too. A big take-up of the brand new SAVE plan would cut back month-to-month funds and waive unpaid curiosity for low-income pupil mortgage debtors, and a one-year “on ramp” for debtors will ignore missed funds for credit score reporting functions. As well as, greater than $127 billion in federal pupil loans throughout over 3.6 million debtors was cancelled or forgiven in the course of the pandemic cost pause. Whereas these components will make the resumption of funds extra easy than in any other case, and reduce the anticipated decline in consumption development, some pupil mortgage debtors will certainly battle managing their debt obligations simply as earlier than the pandemic forbearance. However, we count on the potential spillover to the broader financial system to be restricted, and we are going to proceed to watch developments within the coming months.

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Portrait of Rajashri Chakrabarti

Rajashri Chakrabarti is the pinnacle of Equitable Development Research within the Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York’s Analysis and Statistics Group.  

Daniel Mangrum is a analysis economist in Equitable Development Research within the Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York’s Analysis and Statistics Group.

Sasha Thomas is a analysis analyst within the Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York’s Analysis and Statistics Group.

Photo: portrait of Wilbert Vanderklaauw

Wilbert van der Klaauw is the financial analysis advisor for Family and Public Coverage Analysis within the Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York’s Analysis and Statistics Group.

The right way to cite this submit:
Raji Chakrabarti, Daniel Mangrum, Sasha Thomas, and Wilbert van der Klaauw, “Borrower Expectations for the Return of Pupil Mortgage Reimbursement,” Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York Liberty Road Economics, October 18, 2023,

The views expressed on this submit are these of the creator(s) and don’t essentially mirror the place of the Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York or the Federal Reserve System. Any errors or omissions are the duty of the creator(s).

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